In between the power rails, you’ll see several columns of shorter perpendicular wires, or terminal strips, occupying most of the breadboard underside. Wires in different columns and rows are generally not connected to one another, and never across either side of the wide central gap. Electronically, they’re isolated by the empty space in the middle.
Each of these terminal strips incorporates a series of five small clips, corresponding to a row of five holes on the breadboard surface. These clips grasp component leads as they're pushed through breadboard surface holes. This removes the need for soldering anything in place. Components will be held firmly enough to remain seated when the breadboard is moved around but are easy to remove with a light pull.
When viewing most mid-sized and larger breadboards, you’ll often find that a simple numbering and lettering system has been assigned to the various rows and columns of holes. Holes in the same row and column are usually connected by wires beneath, but not across different rows and columns. For example, holes 1A-1E will usually be connected to each other, but not to holes 2A-2E.
The alphanumeric grid system makes it easy for circuit builders to keep track of which components are connected and where. In turn, planning ahead and troubleshooting becomes simpler as the circuit grows in size and complexity. This system also provides a handy way for beginners to follow basic step-by-step instruction guides about how breadboards work when learning to construct elementary circuits using examples and exercises.