One of the basic methods for creating any object from metal is known as casting, and that’s how malleable iron pipe fittings are made. Casting is when the metal is heated until it is molten and it is then poured into a mould in the desired shape. After it is left to cool or is cooled forcibly, it returns to its solid form but in the desired shape. It can then be finessed with various finishes, and have screw threads tapped into it.
In the case of malleable iron pipe fittings, when being formed, the temperatures used to form these fittings can reach as high as 250 degrees Celsius and under a pressure of between 150–300psi. This balance of pressure and heat allows electrons to leave and enter the metal, this then creates a layering effect in the metal composition or structure and is what causes the metal to be flexible and mouldable.
Because of malleable iron pipe fittings’ bendable structure, the metal itself is not as strong as other fitting options. Due to this factor, malleable fittings are not used when further welding is required, as the reheating of the metal would affect its composition and threading is often formed on the fittings instead of additional welding. However, the heating process of malleable iron fittings means that they have great tensile strength, making them a very durable tool and allowing them to last years, if not decades.