Different lubricants vary in their nature:
- Solid lubricants (e.g. graphite)
- Semi-solid lubricants (greases or pastes)
- Liquid lubricants (oils and cooling lubricants)
- Gaseous lubricants (air)
In industrial environments and heavy-duty plants, mainly mineral or synthetic lubricants, greases, and synthetic oils are used.
Oil has a particularly high creeping and wetting capacity. It flows even into the smallest gaps and dissipates heat well. However, oiling limits bearing speed and reduces cooling capacity. Lubricating oils are used at high speeds and temperatures.
Grease seals against impurities such as moisture and foreign bodies and stays at the lubrication point. Industrial greases also offer better start/stop performance than machine oil. Preferred areas of implementation are roller and plain bearings, spindles, fittings, seals, guides, as well as chain drives and gears.
Pastes have a higher content of solid lubricants than greases. They are characterised by good separating, lubrication, and anti-rust qualities, even at high temperatures, under extreme pressure and in contact with aggressive media. Lubricating pastes are suitable for screw connections as well as for pressing pins, bolts, and gears.