Electrical transformers work on the principle of Faradays Law, or to summarise they use electromagnetic induction to connect two circuits to transfer the electrical current from one circuit to the other. As previously mentioned, sometimes during the transference a voltage will be increased or reduced based on the energy need. However, the frequency over the current will always stay the same.
Electrical Transformers contain a magnetic core, a primary winding, and a secondary winding. In a transformer diagram, the structure of the transformer would look like a square (this being the core), with two wires wrapped around each vertical side (these being the primary and secondary windings). These windings have separated and isolated electrical currents, that are linked via the magnetic core in the centre. In a transformer, an electrical current will be received through the primary wire which will cause the core to create an electromagnetic field which will in turn create a voltage in the secondary wire. This voltage or current is the secondary wire is current that is sent out and completes the electrical transfer from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit.
What Does a Step-Up Transformer Do?
A step-up transformer is an electrical transformer that receives a low voltage and during transfer to another circuit, increases the voltage. Whilst the voltage increases from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit, the current value will decrease - during the process of transference, the frequency will stay the same.
A step-up electrical transformer still contains a primary winding, a secondary winding, and a magnetic core. It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
This is then transferred as a voltage and current through the secondary wire, via the electromagnetic field. However, in a step-up transformer, the primary wire has a higher voltage and fewer turns around the core compared to a secondary winding. The secondary winding has a lot more turns, increasing the voltage in the secondary wire and transferring a to a new circuit that is higher in voltage and lower in current value.