Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 842-8015
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
Brandonsemi
£0.037
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
Units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 843-1575
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
Brandonsemi
£0.153
Each (In a Pack of 50)
Units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 124-1317
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TA
Brandonsemi
£0.03
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
Units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1056
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TFR
Brandonsemi
£0.068
Each (In a Pack of 200)
Units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1043
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TAR
Brandonsemi
£0.055
Each (In a Pack of 200)
Units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6075
Mfr. Part No.BD139
£0.379
Each (In a Tube of 50)
Units
NPN 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm -
RS Stock No. 314-1823
Mfr. Part No.BD139
£0.52
Each
Units
NPN 3 A 80 V SOT-32 Through Hole 1.25 W Single 80 V 5 V - 3 1 10.8 x 7.8 x 2.7mm -
RS Stock No. 671-1116
Mfr. Part No.BC33725TA
£0.224
Each (In a Pack of 10)
Units
NPN 800 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single - 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.33 x 5.2 x 4.19mm -
RS Stock No. 803-1068
Mfr. Part No.BC33725TAR
Brandonsemi
£0.08
Each (In a Pack of 200)
Units
NPN 800 mA 50 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 10 V 5 V 50 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 169-8605
Mfr. Part No.BC33725TFR
Brandonsemi
£0.042
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
Units
NPN 800 mA 50 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 10 V 5 V 50 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 803-1061
Mfr. Part No.BC33725TFR
Brandonsemi
£0.121
Each (In a Pack of 200)
Units
NPN 800 mA 50 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 10 V 5 V 50 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 178-7544
Mfr. Part No.BC33725TAR
Brandonsemi
£0.044
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
Units
NPN 800 mA 50 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 10 V 5 V 50 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -
RS Stock No. 124-1731
Mfr. Part No.BC33725TA
Brandonsemi
£0.046
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
Units
NPN 800 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single - 5 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.33 x 5.2 x 4.19mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6171
Mfr. Part No.TIP41C
£0.418
Each (In a Tube of 50)
Units
NPN 6 A 100 V TO-220 Through Hole 65 W Single 100 V 5 V - 3 1 9.15 x 10.4 x 4.6mm -
RS Stock No. 485-9812
Mfr. Part No.TIP41C
£0.634
Each (In a Pack of 5)
Units
NPN 6 A 100 V TO-220 Through Hole 65 W Single 100 V 5 V - 3 1 9.15 x 10.4 x 4.6mm -
RS Stock No. 168-6056
Mfr. Part No.TIP35C
£1.401
Each (In a Tube of 30)
Units
NPN 25 A 100 V TO-247 Through Hole 125 W Single 100 V 5 V 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -
RS Stock No. 251-3564
Mfr. Part No.TIP35C
£2.00
Each
Units
NPN 25 A 100 V TO-247 Through Hole 125 W Single 100 V 5 V 3 MHz 3 1 20.15 x 15.75 x 5.15mm -
RS Stock No. 103-2964
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
Brandonsemi
£3.935
Each (In a Tray of 100)
Units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204AA Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 2 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -
RS Stock No. 545-2210
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
£5.35
Each
Units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204 Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -
RS Stock No. 803-1087
Mfr. Part No.BC547BTF
Brandonsemi
£0.076
Each (In a Pack of 200)
Units
NPN 100 mA 45 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 50 V 6 V 1 MHz 3 1 4.58 x 3.86 x 4.58mm -